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We then examined the nature of the glycosyl chain more closely by enzymatic digestion. Endoglycosidase H (EndoH) cleaves all N-linked carbohydrate chains normally occurring in the ER between the two innermost GlcNAc residues, leading to very fast migration of the digested product. EndoH digestion was used to confirm that the isolated glycotripeptides contain typical N-linked carbohydrate chains ( Fig. 9C , pancreas and adrenal, lane E). In contrast, Jack bean α-mannosidase is an exomannosidase that cleaves only terminal α-linked mannoses. In dog pancreas-derived glycotripeptides, incubation with this enzyme led to a complete digestion down to the GlcNAc 2 βMan core ( Fig. 9C , pancreas, lane M). In contrast, when glycotripeptides derived from adrenal smooth microsomes were subjected to this digest ( Fig. 9C , adrenal, lane M), an additional spot with lower Rf value was seen. This partially resistant material presumably retains one or more of the terminal glucose residues that are initially present on the transferred N-glycosyl chain (Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 ). This assumption was confirmed by comparison with glycotripeptides generated in the presence of castanospermine, a glucosidase inhibitor (data not shown). Thus, the slower migration of adrenal-derived material can be explained by a low activity of at least one glucosidase (I and/or II) in adrenal microsomes. If glucosidase II were preferentially affected, retention of monoglucosyl residues could result in more extended association with chaperones such as calnexin, abundant in the smooth microsomes, facilitating retention of glycosylated proteins in the SER ( 56 , 57 ).

Having found that the OST components formed a functional unit in adrenal smooth microsomes, we then sought to determine whether the SR and Sec61 complexes function in this setting. To determine SR activity, we took advantage of a previously developed photocross-linking assay in which one can assess SR activity by looking for a decrease in the amount of signal peptide-associated SRP54 ( 23 ). Truncated RNCs for 86pPL containing photocross-linker-modified lysines, were prepared in a reticulocyte lysate system. In absence of microsomal membranes a 62-kDa photoadduct formed representing the 86pPL signal peptide cross-linked to SRP 54 kDa ( 24 , 25 ). Addition of SR-containing dog rough microsomes reduces the intensity of the SRP cross-link due to the release of SRP from the nascent chain by SR present in the microsomal membranes ( 23 ). In this assay, adrenal smooth microsomes were capable of decreasing the intensity of the SRP cross-link, although not to the same extent as dog pancreatic microsomes ( Fig. 10A ). Because the levels of SRα are lower in adrenal smooth microsomes than in liver or pancreas rough microsomes, it is possible that some ribosome-nascent chain-SRP complexes interacted with SR-deficient Sec61 complexes and were therefore unable to release SRP.

Photographer: Sarah Anne Ward

In 2013, Disney set up a meeting with Hasbro, which already had Disney’s Star Wars and Marvel licenses, and its FunLab ran regular tests for the company. Before each Star Wars movie, for example, Hasbro tested kids’ familiarity with the franchise. They discovered that parents—“dads mostly,” says Frascotti—passed down their love of Star Wars to their kids in the same way that they taught them which sports teams to root for. “We have a fancy term for it that we made up,” says Frascotti. “We call it trans-generational emotional resonance.” Disney liked Hasbro’s FunLab reports. “They’d seen them work quite well for Star Wars and Marvel,” says Goldner. “Then they asked us what we knew about girls.”

Hasbro researchers found that girls—young girls, particularly—weren’t nearly as into clothes and boys and happily-ever-after as they thought. “What we found was that girls loved the idea of a brand that embraced friendship and kindness,” Goldner says. Impressed with Hasbro’s analysis, Disney gave it a small license for Descendants , a made-for-TV movie it was developing about the Studded hightop trainers in nappa leather HUGO BOSS rKSfjZtEp
of its princesses.

Meanwhile, Mattel made what, in hindsight, seems like a pretty dense move: In 2013 it released its own line of princess-themed dolls, Ever After High. Unless you’re a girl under 10—or the parent of one—you’ve probably never heard of them. Designed to be the teen children of Cinderella, Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, and other characters, they wear platform shoes, bodices, and short, sometimes see-through skirts: tarted-up versions of Disney’s Princesses. Stephen Sumner, a former Barbie designer now at Hasbro, did early sketches of the line. He says Mattel envisioned a line of witch dolls, then realized another company already had one. “So they had to turn it into princesses, even though there was kind of an overlap,” he says. Because the dolls were based on traditional fairy tales, Mattel didn’t have to pay Disney licensing fees. Disney didn’t like the competition.

Several former Mattel employees point to the 2013 release of Ever After High as the last straw for Disney. Chris Sinclair, a Mattel board member who took over as CEO in January, agrees. “We got too competitive with them on Ever After High,” he says. According to Mattel’s annual report, Ever After High accounted for just $53 million in added sales last year.

Hasbro was busy working on its Descendants line when Disney called in early 2014 with a new proposal. “They said,” Goldner recalls, “ ‘What would you do if we gave you the entire Disney Princess business?’ ”

Disney explained that it was reimagining its princesses. Its license agreement with Mattel was coming up for renewal, and it was shopping for a new dollmaker. The company was starting to hear you’re-sending-the-wrong-message-to-our-daughter complaints from parents. The most biting criticism came from New York Times Magazine writer Preowned Ballet flats Salvatore Ferragamo zeqhyjP
, author of the 2011 book Cinderella Ate My Daughter . She often opined about the time her daughter’s dentist asked her to sit in his “princess chair” so he could “sparkle” her teeth. “Parents were talking about the ‘princess phase’ as if it were an actual stage of development,” says Orenstein.

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